Five year experience of the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus

Leo A.C., Cavazzoni E., Cantarella F., Baldelli F., Santorelli C. et al
G Chir Vol. 38 – n. 4 – pp. 176-180, July- August 2017

The best treatment of early stage anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is under debated. Wide local excision (WLE) may be considered adequate for stage 1 anal margin cancer. This study demonstrates our experience in treatment of patients with SCC over 5 years.

We conducted a retrospective study of patients who had undergone anal screening or anal cancer surveillance between October 2010 and 2015 in our department. Each patient underwent anal Pap test, HPV test PCR HPV DNA and cytology by Thin Prep. The examinations were performed by Proctostation THD©. Data were collected and analysed.

We included 25 patients, 16 male (64%) and 9 female (36%). Twenty-four patients had SCC and 1 patient had adenocarcinoma. Of this cohort: 10 underwent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) because T3-4 N1-2 M0, 13 underwent only surgery because T1/T2 and 2 patients had CRT and surgery because they already have had anal cancer treated in the past with CRT. Seventeen patients (68%) of this cohort, including 5 with micro-invasive SCCs, had regular follow-up without recurrences. Four patients (17%) died from metastatic disease and 4 patients (17%) had recurrent disease.

In this small cohort we demonstrated satisfactory results in treatment of SCCs, underlining the effective role of surgery in early stages of SCC. Screening program and follow up were fundamental to identify early stage and recurrent disease. Also we found the High-resolution video-proctoscopy a valid diagnostic tool.